Food is big business and kids are a primary target.
Marketing to children has changed dramatically in the last 10 to 15 years. Today, marketing to children is seamless, sophisticated and often interactive. The line between ads and children’s entertainment has blurred, with marketing messages being inserted into the places that children play and learn.
This is not your grandmother’s advertising. Today, libraries, schools, movies, activity books, toys, cellphone ringtones, apps, movies, cartoons, music videos, websites, video games, children’s programming are saturated with marketing messages.
Marketing includes a wide array of tactics companies use to promote their products, such as:
- Attractive packaging
- Placement in strategic locations within stores and on shelves
- Free giveaways and coupons
- Celebrity endorsements
- Product placements in movies, cartoons or popular TV shows
- Sponsorship of kids programs, camps and sports teams
- Children’s activities, awards, recognition programs and logo placement in schools
- Widespread logo placement
- Text messaging
- Fun and interactive promotions
- Embedding products, brands or logos within games, video games or websites
- Online and offline games and books
- “Branded environments”
- TV advertisements
The World Health Organization provides a comprehensive list of marketing techniques, see pages 10 and 53 of the WHO (2010) publication: “A framework for implementing the set of recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to Children”.
Kids are exposed to more commercial marketing than ever before:
- In 2010, the World Health Organization called on its member nations to reduce the impact of marketing of foods high in saturated fats, sugars or salt to children.
- Marketing of food and beverages to children in Canada is largely self-regulated by the same industries that profit from this practice. Research reveals that these voluntary measures are not working. As much as 90% of food and beverages marketed on TV are high in salt, saturated fat, sugar or calories. Read more here.
- Research led by Dr. Monique Potvin Kent reveals three-quarters of children in Canada are exposed to food marketing while using their favourite social media applications. The majority of these ads are for ultra-processed foods and beverages high in saturated fat, salt or sugar. The study looked at the most popular social media apps that kids and teens (ages 7-16 years) access using smartphones and tablets: Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter, YouTube.
The extent of the problem:
- 90% of the products advertised during children’s TV programming are high in sugar, salt or saturated fat.
- Over 90% of food and beverage product ads viewed by kids online are for dietary products that are high in sugar, saturated fat, or salt.
- Children and teens’ specialty TV channels in Canada stream as many as five food and beverage ads per station per hour. This means that a child or teenager, watching two hours of TV per day, is likely to be exposed to 3,600 ads each year from TV alone!
- The foods most heavily advertised to children on specialty TV channels are fast food, candy and chocolate, cakes, cookies and ice cream. The foods most advertised to teens on specialty channels include juices, soft drinks and sports drinks, fast food, candy and chocolate.
Food and beverage companies collect data and track behaviours online.
This enables companies to:
- Understand the power of various marketing techniques.
- Create highly detailed, personalized behavioural profiles that appeal to children.
- Deliver advertising that targets a child’s specific interests.
- Retarget viewers to increase exposure, awareness and action.
- Target individuals with personalized messages on their digital devices in real-time.
Children are uniquely vulnerable to marketing:
- Before age five, most children cannot distinguish ads from unbiased programming.
- Children under eight do not understand the intent of marketing messages and believe what they see.
- By age 10 to 12, children understand that ads are designed to sell products, but they are not always able to be critical of these ads.
Teens are also vulnerable:
- Despite increasing cognitive sophistication, teens are uniquely susceptible to marketing due to the hormonal effects of puberty on the developing brain. With the onset of puberty it appears that the brain reward centre becomes stronger than the rational decision-making region (prefrontal cortex).
- Teens are particularly susceptible to digital marketing (transmitted to personal computers, tablets and smartphones) since it blurs the lines between marketing and entertainment, arouses their emotions and can derail their ability to make good decisions.